The Effect of Intervention on Short-Term Memory Recall of Words

Topics: Memory processes, Interference theory, Memory Pages: 8 (2577 words) Published: July 6, 2013
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The Effect of Intervention on Short-Term Memory Recall of Words Ariza Jill J. Ignacio
Janezza Joselle R. Lim
Steven Rae S. Lowe
Alyanna Mae S. Luna
Nathalee A. Macarubbo
Sierry Mae G. Malanao

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This study evaluated the effect of intervention on short-term memory of selected participants. There were 38 participants who completed the study: 29 female students, and 9 male students. The primary experimenter (PE') used 20 stimulus words for the study. To test the interference effect, 5 articles/reading materials were prepared for the experimental group. The participants were tasked to recall as many words as they can from the list of 20 stimulus words until they are signaled to stop. It was predicted that intervention does have an effect on the ability to recall words but results indicated that the number of words recalled were not significantly different between reading five articles after the stimulus was presented and recalling without any interference.

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The Effect of Intervention on Short-Term Memory Recall of Words Almost everyone understands memory as a necessity for learning to occur and that personal memories define each individual (Dehn, 2010). In this experiment, the use of a person’s memory was utilized. By definition, memory is [a] unique psychological construct and cognitive function in that almost everyone is interested in or concerned about his or her memory at some point in their lives (Dehn, 2010). Short-term memory is limited in capacity and duration, while long-term memory has an immense capacity, and that memory can last a lifetime (Folger, 2005). We can consider memory in terms of the length of time for which memories are stored; the type of information to explicit or implicit memory, whether recall or recognition is required, and whether the memory is retrospective be remembered, the modality the information is in, the stages in the process of remembering, or prospective. But remembering things depends on learning and storing information so that it can be retrieved at some time (Folger, 2005); and the infamous line that “practice makes perfect” surely holds true for learning and memory: Recall of stored information is improved more if practiced (Dehn, 2010). Often times, we experience difficulty in recalling things that we’ve stored in our memory due to interference. This experiment involved the occurrence of retroactive interference which happens when retrieval of information learned earlier is impeded by subsequent exposure to additional material (Dehn, 2010). The effect of the occurrence of interference in our memory leads to forgetting. According to Dehn (2010), forgetting is referred to as either the actual loss of information from storage or the inability to retrieve it on demand. In 2001, Anderson and Bell claimed that one factor that may explain forgetting is retrieval competition. When one recalls something, a variety of related memories become activated. These

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compete with the target memory for access to conscious awareness. The more related memories are, the less likely will be retrieval of the target. Retrieval is the process of getting information from long-term memory into the conscious state of memory. There are of two types; Recognition which is the process of information that is presented to you as something or someone you already know, and recall that is a self-initiated search of long-term memory for information is you want. But over the decade, the adequacy of the retrieval competition was questioned as a...

References: Anderson, M., & Bell, T. (2001).Forgetting Our Facts: The Role of Inhibitory Process in the Loss of Propositional Knowledge.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(3), 544-570.
Dehn, M. J. (2010). Long-term memory problems in children and adolescents: assessment, intervention , and effective instruction. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Eller, L. S., &Worthen J. B. (2002). Test of Competing Explanations of the Bizarre Response Bias in Recognition Memory.The Journal of General Psychology, 129(1), 36-48.
Folger, J. (2005). Improving your memory : How to remember what you 're starting to forget . (3rd ed.).Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Griffiths, O., & Mitchell, C. (2008).Selective Attention in Human Associative Learning and Recognition Memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(4), 626-648.
Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2000). Working-Memory Capacity, Proactive Interference, and Divided Attention: Limits on Long-Term Memory Retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(2), 336-358.
McLeod, S. (2008). Forgetting – Simply Psychology [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology,org/forgetting.html
Uttal, W
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